|Human brain is the most sophisticated organ that regulates our mind and behavior. We still have no way to mimic its structure and functions. Moreover, we have no way to repair our brain after traumatic damage, ischemia, or cerebral hemorrhage, as predicted by Ramon y Cajal. Recently, several pathologists have found that neural progenitor cells can be induced in the leptomeninges (the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane) following ischemic stroke. The origin, identity, and subtypes of the ischemic-induced neural progenitor cells were unclear. However, we found that amygdala kindling causes phenomena similar to that after epileptic seizures in the brain. While we repeated the kindling formation, the nestin-positive cells in the leptomeninges matured and tuned into the inhibitory neurons and pyramidal neurons in the neocortex. This finding will bring us the therapeutic treatment of our brain.