| Recently, we found that CD4 cells of patients with asthmatics preferential infiltrate into the bronchial tissues. Now, we are studying the infiltrating mechanism. Our goal of the study is to treatment asthma by blocking the infiltration and suppressing the responsible lymphocytes. We explore step-down treatment approach of inhaler therapy in well-controlled asthmatics with inhaled corticosteroid/long acting ß2 agonist combination. Furthermore, we seek after exhaled gas analysis and sputum to diagnose and to treat cough with unknown origin. We examined expression of a EGFR(epidermal growth factor receptor) expression and the mutations on lung cancer cells. This project is useful for a selection of candidates for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor to treat lung cancer. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias(IIPs) are progressive interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology with a variety of inflammatory and fibrotic changes. So, we examine serum makers for diagnosis and prognosis for the IIPs, and we are trying to develop a new therapy using PMX-DHP for IIPs. To establish nobel therapies for acute lung injury (ALI), we recently demonstrated that Galectin-9 attenuated a murine ALI model by expanding plasmacytoid dendritic cells-like macrophages by preferentially suppressing macrophage functions to release pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR4 and TLR2 down-regulation. Now, studies of lung stem cells and progenitor cells are in progress.